Life In Sounds, Colours And Atmospheres: A Case Study On Synaesthesia

Heikki Ruismäki
University of Helsinki, Finland
Antti Juvonen
University of Eastern, Finland


In this article we focus on the world of colour associations and atmospheres experienced by a famous and successful piano pedagogue. The aim of the study is to open one point of view inside the phenomenon of synaesthesia through one case which is truly reliable. This case study is based on personal interviews with the pedagogue (August 16-19, 1999, and April 27, 2010), and the findings are anchored theoretically in the synaesthetic experience. The article subtitles are the themes and subjects used in the interviews, and the free association discussions have been shaped into more structured form. To express the events in a way that is similar to the real life experiences, we have quoted the interviewee directly in our text. Lasīt vairāk "Life In Sounds, Colours And Atmospheres: A Case Study On Synaesthesia"

Family As Value. The Model Of A Family Moulded By Graduating Students

Margaret Przybysz-Zaremba
Institute of Pedagogy and Languages, Poland


Family is the most important value, which is present in the life of each individual. It was confirmed by research conducted among graduating students of the secondary school, who placed family and love at the highest place in the hierarchy of values, claiming that it is [at the same time] a fundamental factor of well-functioning matrimony. Graduating students have plans connected with entering into matrimony.

The studies conducted revealed that almost each of the respondents is going to establish [one’s own] family and have progeny. The plans of respondents as for matrimony and procreation concerned mainly the nature of their relationship, preferred type of their relationship, factors that are crucial for entering into matrimony, features that a husband- or wife-to-be should possess, age at which the respondents plan to have children, and the number of the children. Lasīt vairāk "Family As Value. The Model Of A Family Moulded By Graduating Students"

Driver`s Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Agressive Driving Behaviour

Viktorija Perepjolkina
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia
Viesturs Reņģe
University of Latvia, Latvia


Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the present study two demographic variables (gender and age), two non-psychological driving-experience related variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years) and aggressiveness as a personality trait (including behavioural and affective components) as psychological variable of individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aim of the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study was based on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaire included eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006), short Latvian version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992), and questions gaining demographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predicted aggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associated with higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger component was a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility were unrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of the variance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness, especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileage has a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope of potential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression. Lasīt vairāk "Driver`s Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Agressive Driving Behaviour"

The Art Music`s Road from a Closed System to Openness

Kimmo Lehtonen
University of Turku, Finland
Antti Juvonen
University of Eastern Finland, Finland


In this article we form a review-like vision of the development of Finnish music educational system. We use a philosophic-historic method combining the historical events into the educational theories and philosophical points of view. We use conceptions from music sociology and musicology combined in educational and partly historical point of view. The aim of the study is to find similar elements in the development of Finnish music education and positivistic and behaviouristic theories. The power structures and the ways of action are analyzed and estimated in spirit of discussion and opening new perspectives in the Finnish music education institutes which are struggling for survival in close future. Our findings show that old traditional ways of thinking and developing music education systems and organisations have come to the end of the road and new winds must start blowing. New research,  he explosion-like development in music culture and music industry set new demands also to music education and institutions. The turtle defence no longer works and music culture must be seen as multidimensional many-sided part of every human being’s life. Lasīt vairāk "The Art Music`s Road from a Closed System to Openness"

Adaptation of Runco Ideational Behavior Scale in Latvia

Emīls Kālis
Daugavpils University, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia
Līga Roķe
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia


Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was developed as an alternative instrument to measure creativity in contrast with divergent thinking tests which have only moderate predictive validity. Measure of RIBS is based on the assumption that ideas are the products of original, divergent, and creative thinking behaviour which one can observe and report about his/herself. The aim of the study was to adapt RIBS in Latvia. For the estimation of  sychometric properties and constructing validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) two samples were involved – initial sample (N=107) and comparison sample (N=130). After evaluating the Latvian version of RIBS, two issues were identified: the first pertains to reversed items which have no sufficient shared variance with the total scale while the second issue points to serious problems of model fit challenging one factor solution of ideational behaviour. The possible reasons of these problems are discussed and further steps for RIBS development are proposed, including a change of response scale in order to test the effect of reversed items, establishing the validity with other instruments and investigating the appropriate number of factors to reveal more valid structure of ideational behaviour. Lasīt vairāk "Adaptation of Runco Ideational Behavior Scale in Latvia"

Individuals`s Resistance to Social Crises is a Acquired in Childhood

Sigita Burvytė
Lithuanian University of Education, Lithuania


Objective: the development of person’s resistance to crises. The aim of the study is to reveal the importance of childhood experience to the person, by acquiring resistance to crises; the need of pedagogical help in overcoming  daptation difficulties of the first-year pupil at school. The analysis of pedagogical, psychological, philosophical literature; the analysis of empirical research and statistic data; as well as the method of observation were used in the current study. Though 60 percent of preparation possibilities for life are realised until the beginning of the first grade, the analysis of various authors’ research, quantitative analysis and observation of firstyear pupils in the schools of Vilnius, allow us to conclude that the main reason for a difficult adaptation of first-year pupils is the prevailing belief, that individuals’ preparation for life begins at school. Educational system is based on rendering of the knowledge rather than the development of thinking ability and universal recognition of the environment. Inactivated brain during infancy and early childhood reduces the possibility of mastering information provided at school, and using it in life. Family is the basis, which provides the feeling of safety, which instils real values, which creates the conditions of developing resistance to social changes, and various adaptational skills, which are particularly necessary in the contemporary changing society. Extra attention should be paid to the education of parents and preparation for responsible parenthood. Lasīt vairāk "Individuals`s Resistance to Social Crises is a Acquired in Childhood"

Student-perceived Epistemic Authority of Associate Professors in Institutions of Higher Education

Solveiga Blumberga
Daugavpils University, Latvia


The article analyses the topical social epistemology issue of transmission and sharing of knowledge in the context of social psychology. Essential is focusing on authority as an attitude and, within this context, also focusing on an analysis of the structure of authority, situational structuring of authority.

Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore the epistemic authority of associate professors in institutions of higher education as perceived by the students of various study areas. The concept of epistemic authority has been used to pursue the aim (Raviv, Bar-Tal, Ravi & Abin, 1993; Kruglanski, 1989; Hepburn, 2006; Asmuß & Svennevig, 2009; Glenn & LeBaron, 2011). Exploring epistemic authority is related to exploring the degree of trust in epistemic authority (Kruglanski et al., 2005). Lasīt vairāk "Student-perceived Epistemic Authority of Associate Professors in Institutions of Higher Education"

Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

Amanda Barks, H. Russell Searight, Susan Ratwik
Lake Superior State University, USA


University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroom instruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associated with performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience with electronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroom lecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students who used text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent and received text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messaging during the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantly poorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did not send and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill had significantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It is hypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by  hose with greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findings do not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has little effect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers and professors who ban text messaging in the classroom. Lasīt vairāk "Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance"

Correlation Between Experiences of Artistic Creative Self-Expressions and Life Experiences in Crisis Condition

Daiga Kalēja-Gasparoviča
Riga Teaching and Educational Management Academy, Latvia


Contemporary conditions determine a relationship between the quality of individual’s life and individually developed creative abilities: the ability to adapt to extraordinary situations and circumstances of life, flexibility in thought and action. The studies of visual arts provide an opportunity of enriching one’s experience in creative activities, at the same time facilitating the development of creative abilities. Experiences acquired earlier in life (impressions, low selfesteem and negative experiences) affect artistic creative self-expression and enhanced creative experiences, accordingly, affect the quality of life.

The aim of the article is to reveal and justify the correlations between the personal experiences of artistic creative self-expression and personal life experiences. Methods used in this study: review of scientific literature and  mpirical methods: observation and interviews. Lasīt vairāk "Correlation Between Experiences of Artistic Creative Self-Expressions and Life Experiences in Crisis Condition"