Researching Latvian Child Language

Dace Markus
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Riga, Latvia


The scientific article is an analytical overview of history of child language as new research branch launched in Latvia, indicating significance and future perspective of this direction.

Aim of the study
The aim of the research is to analyse and substantiate the history, strategy and perspective of child’s language studies in Latvia. Lasīt vairāk "Researching Latvian Child Language"

Diagnostics and Description of Children`s of Five Speech in Terms of Inner Programming and Grammatical Structuring

Larisa Kalmykova
Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University named after Hryhoriy Skovoroda, Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine



Diagnostics and description of children’s of five speech in terms of inner programming and grammatical structuring operations are showed here. The article is dedicated to the actual problems of psycho-linguistics of the development,  particularly to the research of grammatical-structuring operations in children of senior preschool age. It elucidates the opening of meaning of these experimental facts as the preconditions of lingvodidactic perfection and realization of principles of perspectiveness and continuation.

Aim of the study
To give the detail analysis of grammatical mounting of speech of senior pre-schoolchildren – as a pre-condition of making the effective technologies for speech development of children and realization of perspectiveness and followingness in the development of communicative abilities in children on the intermediate links of linguistic education – the pre-school and elementary school ones. Lasīt vairāk "Diagnostics and Description of Children`s of Five Speech in Terms of Inner Programming and Grammatical Structuring"

Pronouns in Estonian Child Language

Maigi Vija, Renate Pajusalu
University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Pronouns are words that fall on the boundaries of vocabulary and grammar. They possess several distinctive characteristics that are important for language acquisition. First, since the referent of a pronoun only becomes apparent in context, the interpretation of pronouns requires a specific kind of information. In order to understand to whom I, you or this refer, we need to know the whole communicative situation. This fact should still not complicate language acquisition too much, because the child’s language development starts with ‘here and now’. Yet, the acquisition of a pragmatico-grammatical complex of pronouns is bound to take time due to the variety of pronoun functions involved. On the one hand, the referents of pronouns (especially those of speech act pronouns mina ‘I’ and sina ‘you:2SG’) change constantly, making an exact repetition of what an adult said, in most cases, impossible for the child. On the other hand, the areas of use of certain pronouns (e.g., those expressing definiteness) require the mastery of narrative principles. There are also studies that show that the acquisition of pronouns after the critical age is especially difficult or even impossible (see the discussion of Genie’s case in Lust 2006: 95). Lasīt vairāk "Pronouns in Estonian Child Language"

Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language

Ineta Dabašinskienė
Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania


In most languages diminutive formation is the first pattern of word formation to emerge. The main reason for this seems to be the pragmatic functions of endearment, empathy, and sympathy, which make diminutives particularly appropriate for child-centered communication. This is especially true for things belonging to the child’s world, which the caretakers tend to refer to using diminutives. The frequency of diminutives in the input as well as in the output of children clearly depends on the pragmatic role of diminutives in the respective language. In addition, their greater degree of morphological productivity and transparency, as well as their phonological saliency, favors the use of diminutives (Savickienė & Dressler 2007). Research of the languages where an extensive use of diminutives was noted induced some scholars to advance the hypothesis to the effect that the use of diminutives simplifies the acquisition of nominal declension (Olmsted 1994; Savickienė 2001; Kempe et al. 2001). Lasīt vairāk "Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language"

Grammar Errors in Acquiring Russian As a First and a Second Language

Stella N. Ceytlin
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia



It is intriguing how young children acquiring their native language can often master things that are beyond the power of people learning the very same language as adults.

Thus, for instance, it is usually quite difficult for learners of Russian as a second language to master the cases of nouns or aspects of the verb. Yet Russian babies acquire those categories with no special trouble. I select these categories, the noun cases and verbal aspects, as mastered by Russian babies and foreign speakers, for the purposes of this presentation. By analyzing the errors made by these groups of learners I intend to get to their cause and to see if the strategies of mastering Russian morphology are the same in acquiring Russian as the native language or as the second language.

Aim of the study – to compare grammar errors in the speech of children acquiring Russian as the first language and in the speech of Azerbaijani speakers acquiring Russian as the second language. Lasīt vairāk "Grammar Errors in Acquiring Russian As a First and a Second Language"

Grammatical Functions of Verbs in Child Language

Baiba Ivulāne
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, University of Latvia, Latvia


The article explores the division of grammatical functions of verbs that, according to the author, is the most suitable for the general Latvian language system and illustrates this division with practical examples of language use. Respectively, all verbs are divided into two groups according to their grammatical functions – independent verbs and auxiliary verbs. All groups of verbs used with an auxiliary meaning are explored – auxiliary verbs, copulas and modal verbs. This division of verbs is based on the grammaticalization of the verbs, since, formerly, verbs, now used in auxiliary sense, were used in a substantive meaning and only gradually acquired their auxiliary meaning. Lasīt vairāk "Grammatical Functions of Verbs in Child Language"

Children`s Language Improvement Possibilities

Viktorija Kuzina
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Child Language Research Center, Latvia


Development and improvement of children’s language generally takes place on three levels: the first level – parents, the influence of language in the family, the second level – the influence of language at school (pre-school and primary school), and the third level – the influence of language in the environment (the yard, the street or the local area). A child exists in a world full of words. It intuitively more or less understands and applies the most frequently heard words and expressions in the everyday speech. A child’s language is largely influenced by the family, teachers, as well as friends and other people that are considered by the child to be its authority. All of these sources play a certain role in the processes of language acquisition and development of speech culture. Lasīt vairāk "Children`s Language Improvement Possibilities"

Child Speech Development at Pre-school and at School: Aspect of Successive Learning

Zenta Anspoka
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia


Whilst living in today’s contemporary and diverse environment of visual information, people draw too little attention to verbal information, textual perception, listening, reading and writing. However, language is not only a means of communication. Language is also a means of acknowledging human thinking, self-affirmation and ethnicity. Since the main goal of education is to raise a creative personality, the mutual relationship between language and speech becomes the most important means to this end. Lasīt vairāk "Child Speech Development at Pre-school and at School: Aspect of Successive Learning"

Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children

Sarmīte Tūbele
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy University of Latvia, Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art, Latvia


Article „Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children” is devoted to reveal content and directions of the work with preschool children in the so called group of risk. Speech and language pathologists are working with children in Latvia mostly starting at the age of 5, but sometimes time is lost and specific problems are present. There are specialists of early intervention but their activities are not obligatory and mostly they are available in private  kindergartens or in developmental centres. It is necessary to speak about prevention because this issue is as a topic in many countries in Europe and in the whole world, but there are no many countries where it is determined by legal acts. Speech and language pathologists are speaking about three levels of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary, where each level has its main goals and objectives. When speaking about preschool children at the age of three, mostly it is the primary prevention which should be organized and carried out. Lasīt vairāk "Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children"

Assessment of Emotional Stress and Hyperactivity in Children of Preschool and Early School Age

Juris Porozovs
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia

Nelli Tolmača, Jānis Vandāns
Psychoneurophysiology and bioregulation Research Centre, Latvia


Nowadays, one can observe a developing problem: a rising number of children who are slow to succeed in learning and have difficulties in mastering the school program. Lasīt vairāk "Assessment of Emotional Stress and Hyperactivity in Children of Preschool and Early School Age"