Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language

Ineta Dabašinskienė
Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania

Summary

Introduction
In most languages diminutive formation is the first pattern of word formation to emerge. The main reason for this seems to be the pragmatic functions of endearment, empathy, and sympathy, which make diminutives particularly appropriate for child-centered communication. This is especially true for things belonging to the child’s world, which the caretakers tend to refer to using diminutives. The frequency of diminutives in the input as well as in the output of children clearly depends on the pragmatic role of diminutives in the respective language. In addition, their greater degree of morphological productivity and transparency, as well as their phonological saliency, favors the use of diminutives (Savickienė & Dressler 2007). Research of the languages where an extensive use of diminutives was noted induced some scholars to advance the hypothesis to the effect that the use of diminutives simplifies the acquisition of nominal declension (Olmsted 1994; Savickienė 2001; Kempe et al. 2001). Lasīt vairāk "Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language"

Grammatical Functions of Verbs in Child Language

Baiba Ivulāne
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, University of Latvia, Latvia

Abstract

The article explores the division of grammatical functions of verbs that, according to the author, is the most suitable for the general Latvian language system and illustrates this division with practical examples of language use. Respectively, all verbs are divided into two groups according to their grammatical functions – independent verbs and auxiliary verbs. All groups of verbs used with an auxiliary meaning are explored – auxiliary verbs, copulas and modal verbs. This division of verbs is based on the grammaticalization of the verbs, since, formerly, verbs, now used in auxiliary sense, were used in a substantive meaning and only gradually acquired their auxiliary meaning. Lasīt vairāk "Grammatical Functions of Verbs in Child Language"

Children`s Language Improvement Possibilities

Viktorija Kuzina
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Child Language Research Center, Latvia

 Abstract

Development and improvement of children’s language generally takes place on three levels: the first level – parents, the influence of language in the family, the second level – the influence of language at school (pre-school and primary school), and the third level – the influence of language in the environment (the yard, the street or the local area). A child exists in a world full of words. It intuitively more or less understands and applies the most frequently heard words and expressions in the everyday speech. A child’s language is largely influenced by the family, teachers, as well as friends and other people that are considered by the child to be its authority. All of these sources play a certain role in the processes of language acquisition and development of speech culture. Lasīt vairāk "Children`s Language Improvement Possibilities"

Child Speech Development at Pre-school and at School: Aspect of Successive Learning

Zenta Anspoka
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia

Abstract

Whilst living in today’s contemporary and diverse environment of visual information, people draw too little attention to verbal information, textual perception, listening, reading and writing. However, language is not only a means of communication. Language is also a means of acknowledging human thinking, self-affirmation and ethnicity. Since the main goal of education is to raise a creative personality, the mutual relationship between language and speech becomes the most important means to this end. Lasīt vairāk "Child Speech Development at Pre-school and at School: Aspect of Successive Learning"

Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children

Sarmīte Tūbele
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy University of Latvia, Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art, Latvia

Abstract

Article „Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children” is devoted to reveal content and directions of the work with preschool children in the so called group of risk. Speech and language pathologists are working with children in Latvia mostly starting at the age of 5, but sometimes time is lost and specific problems are present. There are specialists of early intervention but their activities are not obligatory and mostly they are available in private  kindergartens or in developmental centres. It is necessary to speak about prevention because this issue is as a topic in many countries in Europe and in the whole world, but there are no many countries where it is determined by legal acts. Speech and language pathologists are speaking about three levels of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary, where each level has its main goals and objectives. When speaking about preschool children at the age of three, mostly it is the primary prevention which should be organized and carried out. Lasīt vairāk "Prevention of Speech and Language Disorders in Preschool Children"

Assessment of Emotional Stress and Hyperactivity in Children of Preschool and Early School Age

Juris Porozovs
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia

Nelli Tolmača, Jānis Vandāns
Psychoneurophysiology and bioregulation Research Centre, Latvia

Introduction

Nowadays, one can observe a developing problem: a rising number of children who are slow to succeed in learning and have difficulties in mastering the school program. Lasīt vairāk "Assessment of Emotional Stress and Hyperactivity in Children of Preschool and Early School Age"